Paul, writing to a largely Gentile church reminds them of the state of their relationship with God prior to coming to faith in Jesus. ‘As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins.’ v1 Dead here refers to spiritual death and by this he means alienated from God who is life and gives life. The dominant Jewish belief had been, throughout the Old Testament, that non-Jews were not in relationship with God because they did not share in the Abrahamic covenant or the Mosaic law. This was never truly accurate as there are many examples in the Old Testament of non-Jews being crucial players in God’s salvation plan including being part of the Messiah’s family tree. This in itself is an excellent example of why it is important that scripture includes large sections of narrative so we can see how God’s salvation plan is applied and works out over time. Salvation as Hebrews sets out in detail was always through faith. Jesus, as the chapter goes on to explain, overcomes the divisions between Jew and non-Jew as well as between humankind and God.