Paul points to the culture change that occurs when one becomes a Christian by making clear that all prior to conversion lived already under God’s wrath. He does not fudge the lines of difference. Paul does not recognize grey areas. We are either in or out, disobedient or obedient. In his eyes one can’t be 60% a Christian. Before we were a Christian, Paul says, ‘All of us … lived to gratify the cravings of the flesh and follow its desires and thoughts.’ That is 100% disobedient to God, not necessarily in the “worst” ways imaginable but fully signed up to the ways of the world. He makes an interesting shift in his use of language when he says, ‘we were’. Here he is including not only the Roman/Greek culture but also Jewish believers prior to their conversion. Both were in the same predicament. Being a part of the covenant people of Israel does not automatically mean acceptance by God. By nature, all share a natural propensity to oppose God’s will and the Spirit. (Galatians 5:16-21 gives a fuller explanation.) Therefore, all deserved God’s anger and judgement. (Romans 2:5, 1 Thessalonians 1:10) God’s wrath is not a vindictive act as commonly believed of Roman/Greek gods. It is both a necessary and appropriate response by God towards those who reject their creator and his mercy.